My outlook is different
It is a brain development disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old. Parents usually notice signs in the first two years of their child's life. Early behavioral or cognitive intervention can help children gain self-care, social, and communication skills.
Clinical Features of Autism :
Spinning - Repetitive behavior (preservation) - No Speech - Balancing, e.g. standing on a fence - Flapping hands - Behavior that is aggressive to others - Walking on tiptoes - Lack of interaction with other children - Lack of eye contact - Extreme dislike of touching certain textures - Self-injurious behavior - Desire to keep objects in a certain physical pattern - Lack of interest in toys - Desire to follow set patterns of behavior/interaction - Dislike of being touched - Treating other people as if they were inanimate objects - Non-speech vocalizations - Delayed echolalia: repeating something heard at an earlier time - Preoccupation with hands - Confusion between the pronouns "I" and "You" - Lack of response to people - Echolalia: speech consisting of literally repeating something heard - Extreme dislike of certain foods - Either extremely passive behavior or extremely nervous, active behavior - Delayed development of speech - When picked up, offering no "help" ("feels like lifting a sack of potatoes") - Extreme dislike of certain sounds - "Islets of competence", areas where the child has normal or even advanced competence - Typical examples include drawing skill, musical skill, arithmetic, calendar arithmetic, memory skills, perfect pitch.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) :
It is a condition that becomes apparent in some children in the preschool and early school years. It is hard for these children to control their behavior and/or pay attention. It is estimated that between 3 and 5 percent of children have ADHD, or approximately 2 million children in the United States. This means that in a classroom of 25 to 30 children, it is likely that at least one will have ADHD. ADHD was first described by Dr. Heinrich Hoffman in 1845. A physician who wrote books on medicine and psychiatry, Dr. Hoffman was also a poet who became interested in writing for children when he could not find suitable materials to read to his 3-year-old son. The result was a book of poems, complete with illustrations, about children and their characteristics. "The Story of Fidgety Philip" was an accurate description of a little boy who had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Yet it was not until 1902 that Sir George F. Still published a series of lectures to the Royal College of Physicians in England in which he described a group of impulsive children with significant behavioral problems, caused by a genetic dysfunction and not by poor child rearing—children who today would be easily recognized as having ADHD.1 Since then, several caused by a genetic dysfunction and not by poor child rearing—children who today would be easily recognized as having ADHD.1 Since then, several thousand scientific papers on the disorder have been published, providing information on its nature, course, causes, impairments, and treatments.
A child with ADHD faces a difficult but not insurmountable task ahead. In order to achieve his or her full potential, he or she should receive help, guidance, and understanding from parents, guidance counselors, and the public education system. This document offers information on ADHD and its management, including research on medications and behavioral interventions, as well as helpful resources on educational options.
Symptoms of ADHD :
The principal characteristics of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. These symptoms appear early in a child's life. Because many normal children may have these symptoms, but at a low level, or the symptoms may be caused by another disorder, it is important that the child receive a thorough examination and appropriate diagnosis by a well-qualified professional. Symptoms of ADHD will appear over the course of many months, often with the symptoms of impulsiveness and hyperactivity preceding those of inattention, which may not emerge for a year or more.Different symptoms may appear in different settings, depending on the demands the situation may pose for the child's self-control. A child who "can't sit still" or is otherwise disruptive will be noticeable in school, but the inattentive daydreamer may be overlooked. All children are sometimes restless, sometimes act without thinking, and sometimes daydream the time away. When the child's hyperactivity, distractibility, poor concentration, or impulsivity begin to affect performance in school, social relationships with other children, or behavior at home, ADHD may be suspected. However, because the symptoms vary so much across settings, ADHD is not easy to diagnose. This is especially true when inattentiveness is the primary symptom.
According to the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders2 (DSM-IV-TR), three patterns of behavior indicate ADHD. People with ADHD may show several signs of being consistently inattentive. They may have a pattern of being hyperactive and impulsive far more than others of their age. Alternatively, they may show all three types of behavior. This means that there are three subtypes of ADHD recognized by professionals. These are the predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (that does not show significant inattention); the predominantly inattentive type (that does not show significant hyperactive-impulsive behavior) sometimes called ADD, an outdated term for this entire disorder; and the combined type (that displays both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms).
Hyperactive children always seem to be "on the go" or constantly in motion. They dash around touching or playing with whatever is in sight, or talk incessantly. Sitting still at dinner or during a school lesson or story can be a difficult task. They squirm and fidget in their seats or roam around the room. Alternatively, they may wiggle their feet, touch everything, or noisily tap their pencil. Hyperactive teenagers or adults may feel internally restless. They often report needing to stay busy and may try to do several things at once. Impulsive children seem unable to curb their immediate reactions or think before they act.They will often blurt out inappropriate comments, display their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for the later consequences of their conduct. Their impulsivity may make it hard for them to wait for things they want or to take their turn in games. They may grab a toy from another child or hit when they are upset. Even as teenagers or adults, they may impulsively choose to do things that have an immediate but small payoff rather than engage in activities that may take more effort yet provide much greater but delayed rewards.
Some signs of hyperactivity-impulsivity are :
Feeling restless, often fidgeting with hands or feet, or squirming while seated. Running, climbing, or leaving a seat insituations where sitting or quiet behavior is expected. Blurting out answers before hearing the whole question. Having difficulty waiting in line or taking turns.
Children who are inattentive have a hard time keeping their minds on any one thing and may get bored with a task after only a few minutes. If they are doing something they really enjoy, they have no trouble paying attention.
However, focusing deliberate, conscious attention to organizing and completing a task or learning something new is difficult.Homework is particularly hard for these children. They will forget to write down an assignment, or leave it at school. They will forget to bring a book home, or bring the wrong one. The homework, if finally finished, is full of errors and erasures. Homework is often accompanied by frustration for both parent and child.
The DSM-IV-TR gives these signs of inattention :
Often becoming easily distracted by irrelevant sights and sounds .Often failing to pay attention to details and making careless mistakes. Rarely following instructions carefully and completely losing or forgetting things like toys, or pencils, books, and tools needed for a task. Often skipping from one uncompleted activity to another. Children diagnosed with the Predominantly Inattentive Type of ADHD are seldom impulsive or hyperactive, yet they have significant problems paying attention. They appear to be daydreaming, "spacey," easily confused, slow moving, and lethargic. They may have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as other children. When the teacher gives oral or even written instructions, this child has a hard time understanding what he or she is supposed to do and makes frequent mistakes. Yet the child may sit quietly, unobtrusively, and even appear to be working but not fully attending to or understanding the task and the instructions.
These children do not show significant problems with impulsivity and over activity in the classroom, on the school ground, or at home. They may get along better with other children than the more impulsive and hyperactive types of ADHD, and they may not have the same sorts of social problems so common with the combined type of ADHD. So often, their problems with inattention are overlooked. However, they need help just as much as they need children with other types of ADHD, who cause more obvious problems in the classroom
Dyslexia is a learning disability :
characterized by problems in reading, spelling, writing, speaking,Or listening.
Dyslexia is not a disease, but describes rather a different kind of mind that learns in a different way from other people. Many people with the condition are gi f ted and very productive; dyslexia is not at all linked to low intelligence. In fact, intelligence has nothing to do with dyslexia. Dyslexic children seem to have trouble learning early reading skills, problems hearing individual sounds in words, analyzing whole words in parts, and blending sounds into words. Letters such as "d" and "b" may be confused. When a person is dyslexic, there is often an unexpected difference between achievement and aptitude. However, each person with dyslexia has different strengths and weaknesses, although many have unusual talents in art, athletics, architecture, graphics, drama, music, or engineering. These special talents are often in areas that require the ability to integrate sight, spatial skills, and coordination. Often, a person with dyslexia has a problem translating language into thought (such as in listening or reading), or translating thought into language (such as in writing or speaking).
Common characteristics include problems with:
Identifying single words. Understanding sounds in words, sound order, or rhymes. Spelling. Transposing letters in words. Handwriting. Reading comprehension. Delayed spoken language. Confusion with directions,or right/left handedness. Confusion with opposites (up/down, early/late, and so on). Mathematics.
Global developmental delay:
When a child has delaye the achievement of one or more developmental milestones, this is developmental Delay. Global Developmental Delay implies that the child has delays in all areas of development. Babies are usually born programmed to learn important skills such as speaking, socialising or walking in predictable sequences of stages, with the help of encouragement, teaching and support as they grow up. These skills usually develop in predictable sequences and at predictable times. There are well-established average ages for when these stages of skill development occur, although they are all affected by familial factors (children) in some families talk later than in others, walk later, or become dry at night later), racial factors (Black children by and large sit up, crawl and walk earlier than White children do) and social factors (children in homes with lots of books and opportunities to read and where reading is a valued and a frequent pastime will read earlier and better than others). All the above stage of skill development are known as developmental milestones and there are a number of these within recognised areas of development (developmental domains). A child with Developmental Delay has delayed achievement of one or more developmental milestones in one or more developmental domains. A child with Global Developmental Delay (GDD) is one who is delayed in achieving milestones within most, if not all, of these development domains. The prevalence of GDD is estimated to be 5-10 percent of the childhood population, and most children with GDD have impairment of all domains.These domains of development can be summarized as follows: Motor skills (milestones in this domain include gross motor skills such as such as sitting up or rolling over and fine motor skills such as picking up small objects). Speech and language (which also includes babbling, imitating speech , identify in gsounds , communicating using non-verbal means such as ges ture, facial expression, eye contact and posture, and understanding what others are trying to communicate to you – comprehensionor “receptive language”); Cognitive skills (the ability to learn new things, filter and process information, remember and recall, and to reason); Social and emotional skills ( interacting with othersan the development of personal traits and feelings). Parents will often be the first to worry that their child has delays in one or more developmental domains.